RDQP@V|WE2
t@[AjA}EFtFA
|EƓ{̉ƒ{̌Nƕ|
Ẻƒ{̌Ƒ΍
World Farm Animal Welfare - Present Status and Prognosis

WjXERbNX
Janice Cox, MBA
iE_ƎxEpj
International Development Director - CIWF


Introduction

Ruth Harrisonfs 1964 book eAnimal Machinesf, which described in detail the excruciating conditions for intensively farmed calves, pigs and chickens, can be seen as the major catalyst for farm animal welfare reform in the UK and Europe.

In Europe, it was the inspiration for the Council of Europefs Convention for the Protection of Animals Kept for Farming Purposes.

In the UK, resulting consumer pressure made the UK government act ? forming the eBrambell Commissionf to investigate farm animal welfare. The Brambell report (1965) led to the formation of a Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) and an Act of Parliament governing farm animal welfare. It also included the well known efive freedomsf.

Whilst farm animal welfare was born in the UK, it really developed in the European Union (EU)

The European Union

The EUfs farm animal welfare measures include: -
1991 EU bans sow tethers (2006)
1996 EU bans veal crates (2007)
1997 EU Animal Welfare Protocol ? Sentient Beings
1999 EU bans battery cages (2012)
2001 EU bans sow stalls (2013)
2001 EU Parliament votes for 8-hours transport limit
2002 European Commission pledge broilers directive

The EUfs farm animal welfare legislation is based on thorough scientific research and analysis, including influential reports by the Commissionfs own Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Welfare (SCAHAW).

Council of Europe (CoE)

The CoE covers more countries than the EU, having 45 European member states. It was founded in 1949 to promote and protect democracy and human rights. It included animal welfare in its remit because it believed: gthe dignity of mankind could not be disassociated from the respect man owed to his environment and the animals which inhabited ith.


The CoE has five animal welfare conventions, with three on farm animals: -
Protection of animals kept for farming purposes
Protection of animals for slaughter
Protection of animals during international transport

The World Trade Organisation (WTO)

CIWF believes that the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is the greatest threat facing farm animal welfare (and animal protection more generally) today. Under WTO rules a country cannot: -
Ban imports on welfare grounds
Insist that imports comply with its laws to protect animals or the environment.
One example of a measure threatened by the WTO is the EUfs battery cage ban, which is scheduled for introduction from 2012 but will be reviewed in 2005.

In Seattle, the EU tabled animal welfare, but dropped this on pressure from the US and edevelopingf countries.
The EU now proposes:
Multilateral agreement on welfare
Labelling rules recognised as consistent with WTO
eGreen Boxf payments for improved welfare standards/husbandry
(Japan supported the EU in this)

The International Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)

A multilateral agreement may be a partial solution to the WTO problem, particularly if officially recognised by the WTO. The OIE has already started this process, and seems likely to become the international body with competence for animal welfare. It is a broad-based organisation, with 165 member countries (as opposed the WTOfs 146), and was chosen as the body capable of producing science-based guidelines/standards on animal welfare (due to its veterinary role). The OIE has already been mandated by the WTO in animal health matters.

Animal welfare has been established as a priority in the OIEfs 2001-5 strategic plan. Priority will be given to the welfare of animals used in agriculture and aquaculture, and within that category: -
Transport
Humane slaughter
Killing for disease control purposes
Followed by housing and management.

Other Important Animal Welfare Initiatives

Food and Agricultural Organisation of the UN (FAO): The FAO amended its mission to include animal welfare, drafted an animal welfare policy and included animal welfare in its Good Agricultural Practice guidelines.
World Bank: The World Bank made a commitment to hold a conference/meeting on eanimal protection in developmentf.

Council of Europe (CoE)

The CoE covers more countries than the EU ? it has 45 European member states. It was founded in 1949 to promote and protect democracy and human rights. It included animal welfare in its remit because it believed that: ethe dignity of mankind could not be disassociated from the respect man owed to his environment and the animals which inhabited itf.

The CoE has five animal welfare conventions, with three on farm animals: -
Protection of animals kept for farming purposes
Protection of animals for slaughter
Protection of animals during international transport
These conventions are open for member countries to ratify and adopt.

The Reality

The above is the legislative picture. The reality is somewhat different. In practice, there is an explosion of factory farming, driven by demand and fuelled by large corporations. The growth is happening in edevelopingf countries, mainly untouched by legislative protection. CIWF has carried out extensive research into this phenomenon.

CIWF Resources:
Detailed report: gThe WTO rules: a legal analysis of their adverse impact on animal welfareh
Brochure: gWTO ? the greatest threat facing animal protection todayh
The Livestock Revolution - Development or Destruction? Cox & Varpama (2000): Full report, summary report, country reports for: India, China, Thailand, South Africa and Brazil
Livestock revolution information: http://www.ciwf-livestock-revolution.co.uk/
General CIWF information and research: http://www.ciwf.co.uk/




2004 HARs wp
O҂̏^@ • @҂̏^